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March, 4

Military Academies in China: A Comprehensive Guide

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China has a long and rich history of military education, dating back to the ancient times when military strategists and generals wrote classic texts and trained their troops. Today, China has a modern and diverse system of military academies, which provide both academic and professional education for the officers and soldiers of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and the People’s Armed Police Force (PAPF).

These military academies cover various fields and specialties, including national defense, military science, naval, air force, army, art, and information engineering. In this article, we will give you a comprehensive guide of the military academies in China, including their history, admission, ranking, programs, campus life, and frequently asked questions.

What is the History of Military Education in China?

China’s military education system has its roots in ancient times, when military strategists and generals wrote classic texts and trained their troops. From the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, China’s military education evolved with the changing times and needs of warfare. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, China’s military education system underwent a major transformation. It developed a modern and diverse system of military academies, which cover various fields and specialties, such as national defense, military science, naval, air force, army, art, and information engineering. These military academies provide both academic and professional education for the officers and soldiers of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and the People’s Armed Police Force (PAPF), as well as conduct research and training on various fields and issues of national defense and security. They have produced many notable alumni who have significantly contributed to the PLA, the PAPF, and the nation. In this article, we will explore the long and rich history of military education in China, and introduce some of the most prominent military academies in China.

The Ancient Times: Military Texts and Training

The earliest known instance of military training in China was in the Western Zhou Dynasty (1046-771 BC), when the University, a royal institution, focused on martial arts and teachers were military officers. The major content of military training was learning archery and driving chariots, which were the main weapons and vehicles of warfare at that time. The University also taught the Six Arts, which included rites, music, archery, chariotry, calligraphy, and mathematics.

In the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) and the Warring States Period (475-221 BC), China witnessed the emergence of many military strategists and generals, who wrote classic texts on military theory and practice, such as Sun Tzu’s The Art of War, Wu Qi’s Wuzi, and Sima Rangju’s Sima Fa. These texts influenced the development of military thought and strategy in China and beyond, and are still studied and applied today.

In the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) and the Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD), China unified under a centralized imperial system and established a professional and standardized army. The military education system also became more formal and institutionalized, and military academies were set up to train officers and soldiers in various aspects of warfare, such as tactics, logistics, engineering, and law. The military academies also taught the Confucian classics, emphasizing moral and ethical values like loyalty, filial piety, and benevolence.

In the subsequent dynasties, China’s military education system continued to evolve and adapt to the changing times and needs of warfare. Some dynasties established military academies for training officers in modern warfare techniques, such as the Baoding Military Academy in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), which was founded in 1885 and taught subjects such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, and foreign languages.

The Modern Times: Military Academies and Research

After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, China’s military education system underwent a major transformation. It developed a modern and diverse system of military academies, which cover various fields and specialties, such as national defense, military science, naval, air force, army, art, and information engineering. These military academies provide both academic and professional education for the officers and soldiers of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and the People’s Armed Police Force (PAPF), as well as conduct research and training on various fields and issues of national defense and security. They have produced many notable alumni who have significantly contributed to the PLA, the PAPF, and the nation.

The military academies in China can be classified into three levels: general, service, and specialized. General academies are the highest-level military academies in China, which are directly under the leadership of the Central Military Commission (CMC), the supreme military organ of the country. They are responsible for cultivating senior officers and leaders for the PLA and the PAPF and conducting strategic research and consultation on national defense and security issues. China has two general military academies: the PLA National Defense University (Beijing) and the PLA Academy of Military Sciences (Beijing).

Service academies are the second-level military academies in China under the leadership of the respective service branches of the PLA: the PLA Army, the PLA Navy, and the PLA Air Force. They are responsible for cultivating junior and middle-level officers and specialists for the PLA and the PAPF and conducting professional and technical research and training on service-specific issues. There are several service academies in China, such as the Republic of China Military Academy (Taiwan), the PLA Naval Academy of Qingdao, the PLA Naval Submarine Academy, and the PLA Air Force Aviation University (Changchun).

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Specialized academies are the third-level military academies in China, which are under the leadership of the respective functional departments of the PLA and the PAPF, such as the PLA General Political Department, the PLA General Armament Department, and the PAPF Firefighting Department. They are responsible for cultivating specialized officers and experts for the PLA and the PAPF and conducting specialized research and training on functional-specific issues. There are several specialized academies in China, such as the PLA Academy of Art and the PLA Information Engineering University.

Military education in China has a long and rich history, dating back to the ancient times when military strategists and generals wrote classic texts and trained their troops. From the Western Zhou Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, China’s military education evolved with the changing times and needs of warfare. After founding the People’s Republic of China in 1949, China’s military education system underwent a major transformation. It developed a modern and diverse system of military academies covering various fields and specialties, such as national defense, military science, naval, air force, army, art, and information engineering.

These military academies provide both academic and professional education for the officers and soldiers of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and the People’s Armed Police Force (PAPF), as well as conduct research and training on various fields and issues of national defense and security. They have produced many notable alumni who have significantly contributed to the PLA, the PAPF, and the nation. Suppose you want to learn more about the military academies in China. In that case, you can check out these web pages: Military education and training in China – WikipediaChildhood, Education, and Everyday Militarism in China Before and After 1949 | SpringerLinkMilitary education and training in China | Military Wiki | Fandom, and The Reform of Military Education in China: An Overview*.

The List of Military Schools in China

General Military Academies in China

General academies are the highest-level military academies in China, which are directly under the leadership of the Central Military Commission (CMC), the supreme military organ of the country. They are responsible for cultivating senior officers and leaders for the PLA and the PAPF, as well as conducting strategic research and consultation on national defense and security issues. There are two general academies in China: the PLA National Defense University (Beijing) and the PLA Academy of Military Sciences (Beijing).

PLA National Defense University (Beijing)

The PLA National Defense University (Beijing), or simply the NDU, is the top military academy in China, and the cradle of the highest-ranking officers and leaders of the PLA and the PAPF. It was established in 1985 by merging three previous military colleges: the PLA Military Academy, the PLA Political Academy, and the PLA Logistics Academy. The NDU is located in Beijing, the capital city of China, and has a large and modern campus, with advanced facilities and equipment. The NDU offers postgraduate and doctoral programs in various national defense and military affairs fields, such as military strategy, military history, economics, law, psychology, and diplomacy.

The NDU also conducts short-term training courses and seminars for senior officers and leaders from the PLA, the PAPF, and foreign militaries. The NDU has a strong reputation for its quality of education, research, and innovation, as well as its national defense and security achievements. The NDU has produced many notable alumni, such as Xi Jinping, the current President of China and Chairman of the CMC, and Fan Changlong, the former Vice Chairman of the CMC.

PLA Academy of Military Sciences (Beijing)

The PLA Academy of Military Sciences (Beijing), or simply the AMS, is the leading military academy in China, and the main think tank of the PLA and the PAPF. It was established in 1958, by merging several previous military research institutes and departments. The AMS is located in Beijing, China’s capital city, and has a large and modern campus, with advanced facilities and equipment. The AMS offers postgraduate and doctoral programs in various fields of military science and technology, such as military theory, military operations, military engineering, military equipment, military intelligence, and military medicine.

The AMS also conducts short-term training courses and seminars for senior officers and experts from the PLA, the PAPF, and foreign militaries. The AMS has a strong reputation for its quality of education, research, and innovation, as well as its achievements in military science and technology. The AMS has produced many notable alumni, such as Liu Huaqing, the former Vice Chairman of the CMC and the founder of the PLA Navy, and Zhang Youxia, the current Vice Chairman of the CMC and the head of the PLA Equipment Development Department.

Military Service Academies in China

Service academies are the second-level military academies in China, under the leadership of the respective service branches of the PLA: the PLA Army, the PLA Navy, and the PLA Air Force. They are responsible for cultivating junior and middle-level officers and specialists for the PLA and the PAPF and conducting professional and technical research and training on service-specific issues.

There are several service academies in China, such as the Republic of China Military Academy (Taiwan), the PLA Naval Academy of Qingdao, the PLA Naval Submarine Academy, and the PLA Air Force Aviation University (Changchun).

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Republic of China Military Academy (Taiwan)

The Republic of China Military Academy (Taiwan), or simply the ROCMA, is the oldest and most prestigious military academy in China, and the alma mater of many famous generals and leaders of the Republic of China (ROC), also known as Taiwan. It was established in 1924, by Chiang Kai-shek, the founder of the ROC and the leader of the Kuomintang (KMT), the ruling party of China at that time. The ROCMA was originally located in Whampoa, Guangzhou, and was later relocated to Nanjing, the capital city of the ROC. After the Chinese Civil War, the ROCMA moved to Taiwan in 1949, along with the KMT government and the ROC Armed Forces.

The ROCMA is located in Fengshan, Kaohsiung, the second-largest city of Taiwan, and has a large and historic campus, with traditional and modern buildings. The ROCMA offers four-year undergraduate programs in various fields of military and civil affairs, such as infantry, armor, artillery, engineering, aviation, naval, political, foreign languages, and management. The ROCMA also conducts short-term training courses and seminars for junior and middle-level officers and leaders from the ROC Armed Forces and foreign militaries.

The ROCMA has a strong reputation for its quality of education, research, and tradition, as well as its achievements in national defense and democracy. The ROCMA has produced many notable alumni, such as Chiang Kai-shek, the founder of the ROC and the leader of the KMT, Chiang Ching-kuo, the son of Chiang Kai-shek and the former President of the ROC, and Lee Teng-hui, the first native-born and democratically elected President of the ROC.

PLA Naval Academy of Qingdao

The PLA Naval Academy of Qingdao, or simply the PNA, is the main military academy of the PLA Navy, and the cradle of the naval officers and specialists of the PLA and the PAPF. It was established in 1949, by the PLA Navy, the naval branch of the PLA, which was founded in the same year. The PNA is located in Qingdao, a coastal city in Shandong Province, and has a large and modern campus, with advanced facilities and equipment.

The PNA offers four-year undergraduate and three-year postgraduate programs in various fields of naval and maritime affairs, such as surface warfare, submarine warfare, aviation, engineering, naval weapons, naval command, and naval intelligence. The PNA also conducts short-term training courses and seminars for junior and middle-level officers and specialists from the PLA Navy, the PAPF, and foreign navies. The PNA has a strong reputation for its quality of education, research, innovation, and achievements in naval and maritime development.

The PNA has produced many notable alumni, such as Ding Yiping, the former Deputy Commander of the PLA Navy and the Commander of the PLA Navy South Sea Fleet, and Shen Jinlong, the current Commander of the PLA Navy and the former Commander of the PLA Navy North Sea Fleet.

PLA Naval Submarine Academy

The PLA Naval Submarine Academy, or simply the NSA, is the specialized military academy of the PLA Navy, and the cradle of the submarine officers and specialists of the PLA and the PAPF. It was established in 1953, by the PLA Navy, the naval branch of the PLA, which was founded in 1949. The NSA is located in Qingdao, a coastal city in Shandong Province, and has a large and modern campus, with advanced facilities and equipment. The NSA offers four-year undergraduate programs and three-year postgraduate programs in various fields of submarine and underwater affairs, such as submarine operation, submarine engineering, submarine weapons, submarine communication, submarine navigation, and submarine rescue.

The NSA also conducts short-term training courses and seminars for junior and middle-level officers and specialists from the PLA Navy, the PAPF, and foreign navies. The NSA has a strong reputation for its quality of education, research, and innovation, as well as its achievements in submarine and underwater development. The NSA has produced many notable alumni, such as Liu Zhigang, the former Deputy Commander of the PLA Navy and the Commander of the PLA Navy Submarine Force, and Wang Zhongcai, the current Deputy Commander of the PLA Navy and the former Commander of the PLA Navy Submarine Academy.

PLA Air Force Aviation University (Changchun)

The PLA Air Force Aviation University (Changchun), or simply the Aviation University, is the main military academy of the PLA Air Force, and the cradle of the aviation officers and specialists of the PLA and the PAPF. It was established in 1946, as the Northeastern Democratic United Army Aviation School, which was the first aviation school of the Communist Party of China. It was renamed several times over the years, and in 2004, it merged with three other flight academies to form the current Aviation University.

In 2012, it absorbed another flight academy, making it the largest aviation university in China. The Aviation University is located in Changchun, the capital city of Jilin Province, and has a large and beautiful campus, with modern facilities and equipment. The Aviation University offers four-year undergraduate and three-year postgraduate programs in various aviation and aerospace fields, such as pilot, engineer, air traffic controller, and air reconnaissance intelligence.

The Aviation University also conducts short-term training courses and seminars for junior and middle-level officers and specialists from the PLA Air Force, the PAPF, and foreign air forces. The Aviation University has a strong reputation for its quality of education, research, and innovation, as well as its achievements in aviation and aerospace. The Aviation University has produced many notable alumni, such as Li Ming, the chief designer of the Shenzhou spacecraft, Yang Liwei, the first Chinese astronaut, and Zhai Zhigang, the first Chinese spacewalker.

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Specialized Academies in China

Specialized academies are the third-level military academies in China, which are under the leadership of the respective functional departments of the PLA and the PAPF, such as the PLA General Political Department, the PLA General Armament Department, and the PAPF Firefighting Department. They are responsible for cultivating specialized officers and experts for the PLA and the PAPF and conducting specialized research and training on functional-specific issues. There are several specialized academies in China, such as the PLA Academy of Art and the PLA Information Engineering University.

PLA Academy of Art

The PLA Academy of Art, or simply the PAA, is the specialized military academy of the PLA General Political Department and the cradle of the artistic officers and experts of the PLA and the PAPF. It was established in 1954, by the PLA General Political Department, the political organ of the PLA, founded in 1929. The PAA is located in Beijing, China’s capital city, and has a large, beautiful campus with artistic and cultural buildings. The PAA offers four-year undergraduate and three-year postgraduate programs in various fields of art and culture, such as music, dance, drama, film, television, literature, and fine arts.

The PAA also conducts short-term training courses and seminars for artistic officers and experts from the PLA, the PAPF, and foreign militaries. The PAA has a strong reputation for its quality of education, research, and performance, as well as its achievements in art and culture. The PAA has produced many notable alumni, such as Song Zuying, the famous singer and the Vice Chairwoman of the China Federation of Literary and Art Circles, and Zhang Yimou, the renowned director and the chief director of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games opening and closing ceremonies.

PLA Information Engineering University

The PLA Information Engineering University, or the IEU, is the specialized military academy of the PLA General Armament Department and the cradle of the information engineering officers and experts of the PLA and the PAPF. It was established in 1978, by the PLA General Armament Department, the armament organ of the PLA, founded in 1998. The IEU is located in Zhengzhou, the capital city of Henan Province, and has a large and modern campus with advanced facilities and equipment.

The IEU offers four-year undergraduate and three-year postgraduate programs in various information engineering and technology fields, such as computer science, software engineering, network engineering, information security, electronic engineering, and communication engineering. The IEU also conducts short-term training courses and seminars for information engineering officers and experts from the PLA, the PAPF, and foreign militaries. The IEU has a strong reputation for its quality of education, research, and innovation, as well as its achievements in information engineering and technology. The IEU has produced many notable alumni, such as Fang Binxing, the chief designer of the Great Firewall of China, and Wang Jian, the co-founder and chairman of Alibaba Group.

Conclusion

Military academies in China are the backbone of the military education system, and the source of the military talent pool. They provide both academic and professional education for the officers and soldiers of the PLA and the PAPF, as well as conduct research and training on various fields and issues of national defense and security. They have a long and rich history and have produced many notable alumni who have significantly contributed to the PLA, the PAPF, and the nation. If you are interested in pursuing a career in the military or want to learn more about the military academies in China, this article might be a good reference.

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are some common questions that people may have about the military academies in China:

  • Q: How many military academies are there in China?
  • A: There are about 100 military academies in China, including general academies, service academies, specialized academies, and regional academies.
  • Q: How can I apply for the military academies in China?
  • A: You can apply for military academies in China through two main channels: the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) and the military recruitment examination (MRE). The NCEE is the standard examination for high school graduates who want to enter higher education institutions in China, including some military academies. The MRE is the special examination for high school graduates who want to enter the military academies that do not participate in the NCEE, or for college students who want to transfer to the military academies. Both examinations are highly competitive and require a series of physical, psychological, and academic tests, interviews, and background checks.
  • Q: What are the benefits of studying at the military academies in China?
  • A: Studying at the military academies in China means that you have received a high-quality education and training, and that you have become a qualified and competent member of the PLA or the PAPF. You will also enjoy a stable and honorable career, as well as a generous salary and welfare. You will also have opportunities to further your studies, advance your rank, and participate in important missions and projects.
  • Q: What are the challenges of studying at the military academies in China?
  • A: Studying at the military academies in China is not easy, and requires a lot of hard work, dedication, and discipline. You will face high academic standards, strict military regulations, and intense physical and mental pressure. You must also sacrifice some of your freedom, privacy, and leisure time. You will also have to cope with the risks and dangers of military service.

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